Element density increases moving down the family. Positive oxidation State :- All elements show positive oxidation state from +3 and +5 on moving down the group. Due to the inert pair affect the stability of +5 oxidation state decreases down the group, while that of +3 oxidation state increases. Bismuth is a metal. When hydrogen forms compounds with metals, hydrogen's oxidation number is -1. Oxidation numbers of group 1 group 2 elements are studied. (iii)Oxidation State: The common oxidation states of these elements are –3, + 3 and + 5. Group 15 forms binary halides with the elements in two oxidation states: tri-halides with the oxidation state of +3, and penta-halides with the oxidation state of +5.. Tri-Halides. Structures: The gaseous molecules have a pyramidal structure (cf. ammonia). Nitrogen was discovered in 1770 by Scheele and Priestley. Except for nitrogen, the elements are solid at room temperature. Electronegativity (the atom's ability of attracting electrons) decreases down the group. Nitrogen family elements often form covalent compounds, usually with the oxidation numbers +3 or +5. Group 15 elements also show positive oxidation states of +3 & +5 by forming covalent bonds. In the ground state ,all atoms of group 15 elements have the same number of 1.valence electrons 2.electron shells 3.neutrons Of these oxides, P 4 O 6 and As 4 O 6 have cage structures formed by inserting an oxygen atom into each edge of the P 4 or As 4 tetrahedron (part (a) in Figure 22.3. Is hydroxlamine [NH 3OH]+ stable with respect to disproportionation to N In the last member of the group, bismuth hardly forms any compound in –3 oxidation state. Hydrogen. All MX 3 are formed, and they are all volatile and easily hydrolyzed by water. The common oxidation states of these elements are -3, +3 and +5. Oxidation number 0 occurs only in hydrogen molecule.-1 oxidation state - Examples. The tendency to exhibit –3 oxidation state decreases down the group due to increase in size and metallic group. The tendency to exhibit – 3 oxidation state, decreased down the group in group 15 elements. Arsenic and antimony are metalloids. Hydrogen forms three oxidation states, -1 , 0 , +1. +1 oxidation number Group 15: General Properties and Reactions Periodic Trends. The first four elements in group 15 also react with oxygen to produce the corresponding oxide in the +3 oxidation state. NaH and CaH 2 are some examples. They are generally formed by direct reaction of the elements. Explain. With a decrease in the Ionization enthalpy and electronegativity, due to the increasing atomic radius, the tendency to gain three electrons to create a -3 oxidation state decreases down the group. Nitrogen has only s- and p-orbitals, but no d-orbitals in its valance shell. 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